There are several answers here depending on how you interpret the question. Roof materials themselves are one thing, but installation type also plays a role. There’s also variation between manufacturers of roofing materials.
Some roofers will swear by GAF asphalt shingles, while others will say Owens Corning or some other brand is better. Opinions vary based on subjective personal preference or special features manufactured into various shingle types.
CertainTeed is a well-respected asphalt shingle brand in part because their products must, at a minimum, provide 30 lbs. of resistance (the ASTM International standard minimum is 23 lbs. of force).
Owens Corning has a line of shingles, Duration, with a special SureNail® Technology strip at the top of the shingle where they’re nailed in. This strip is specifically designed to prevent shingles from pulling through the fasteners (nail heads), a common type of roof wind damage.
Different roofers have deals with different shingle manufacturers. A roofer in GAF’s “preferred roofer” program is more likely to suggest GAF offers the best shingles. FEMA, on the other hand, doesn’t have a monetary incentive to push any specific roofing brand, so the best practices they suggest can be relied upon for unbiased information.
If asphalt shingles are being installed anywhere with high wind or hurricane risk, FEMA recommends:
There are a lot of other best practices FEMA recommends to make your roof as hurricane-resistant as possible. If you need a roof replacement in Florida, you may want to read through their Roof Coverings and Best Practices documents.
It’s worth noting that organic shingles haven’t been manufactured since about 2006, but some people may still have them on their roofs since some types can last upwards of 30 to 50 years – in the right climate.
Florida tends to be the wrong climate for organic asphalt shingles due to the heat and humidity, so it’s less likely Florida homeowners have them on their roofs. Organic shingles had a base made from wood chips and recycled rags, paper and cardboard, which is what made them both heavier and more flexible than modern fiberglass shingles.
When it comes to resisting 140 or 150 mph winds, metal roofing typically can’t be beat. People are more used to seeing metal roofs on commercial buildings, not homes, but there’s no rule that says it can’t be installed on homes.
The problem is metal is expensive and most people don’t like the look of it on their home (or can’t have it due to HOA restrictions). You may also have trouble finding a roofer that installs residential metal roofing since it’s a somewhat uncommon choice.
There are some attributes that do make metal roofs an attractive option for homeowners. Homeowners that look hard enough can find residential-oriented metal roofing options designed to look like normal asphalt architectural shingles or other common roofing materials instead of the traditional sheet metal look people are more familiar with seeing. There’s also the longevity factor – metal roofing can last much longer than traditional asphalt shingles.
There are also fire-resistance benefits afforded by metal roofing. Some homeowners insurance providers will even offer rate discounts to homeowners who have metal roofing installed.
On the other hand, there’s a potential for hail to dent metal roofing. It may not do much damage in terms of structural integrity, but it can leave a metal roof with a pock marked appearance.
The main wind-resistance benefit of clay tiles is their weight. Lighter asphalt and fiberglass shingles are simply easier to blow around than properly installed and secured clay tiles. However, particularly strong hurricane winds can potentially toss clay tiles around and flying clay tiles are significantly more dangerous than flying asphalt shingles, which is a downside.
Clay tiles can provide good wind resistance if they’re installed properly by roofers experienced with the product, but both the material and installation cost make it a pricey option.
If you can afford a material other than asphalt shingles and you like the look of the alternatives (and your roof’s structure can bear the weight), springing for something like metal roofing, clay or slate are good options.
Most homeowners will ultimately decide on traditional asphalt shingles, in which case each major brand has good wind-resistant options:
Every brand has developed some type of wind-resistant solution to provide maximum protection for homeowners in places like Florida where hurricanes and high-winds are a real risk. You may want to do more research into the price of these styles as well as their aesthetic options before committing to a brand. When every company is essentially offering 130 mph protection, it often comes down to price and appearance for many homeowners.